A Few Words About A Few Words
(when Pure Copper doesn't mean Pure Copper - these are not typos, by the way)
I spoke a little bit earlier about my frustration with this industry as it pertains to the build quality your hard-earned money buys you. Sadly, my frustration doesn't end there.
At the risk of falling hopelessly down a rabbit hole, I'd like to touch on another area that causes me just as much grief - material terminology.
Made with 7N, 8N... 9N Copper!
Well, I have some news to share with you - with only a few extremely rare exceptions, the use of Copper with a purity beyond 6N is not even feasible.
In addition, you would need highly specialized equipment to even make a 6N measurement, and it can only be made if the Copper is in rod form.
That last part is key, because even if you started with 6N Copper rod, it would be virtually impossible to keep that purity throughout the entire process of manufacturing a termination/plug (A/C or IEC, Spade, Banana, etc.). So, even if (a big if) the copper in your cable was 6N, you'd have a bottleneck on either end with the lower purity terminations/plugs anyway, so what would be the point?
When I state purity, it's what is in the finished product [what matters]; for the sake of synergy, it's all 4N.
By the way, that bottleneck principle also applies when using wire with special casting processes (OCC, etc.), IE. Plugs are rarely made with the same material(s). That said, a tip of the hat goes to Neotech, as they match the wire to the plugs (UP-OCC), but it will cost you 4-figures (ish) for what they consider a 9 AWG power cable - by comparison, my "entry-level" cable is less than 1/4 that price, and over 4-times the size (yeah, you read that right).
I'm not finished with this purity thing yet, so buckle up because here's another little tidbit of science when it comes to copper purity, and it's a doozy.
Let's make sure we're on the same page first. 4N Copper purity simply means that the Copper is 99.99%.... well.., Copper. 5N is 99.999%, 6N is 99.9999%, yada, yada, yada.
The remaining 0.01% (in 4N Copper) is made up of other materials like Lead, Tin, and Nickel, just to name a few (there's even a little Calcium for... healthy bones maybe?).
Now, here's comes the doozy of a fact.
What material do you think makes up the largest [by FAR] part of that 0.01%?
I'll give you a hint - it's a metal that those of us who share an interest in this crazy hobby know very well.
And the winner is.... Silver!
That's right folks.
Most of the metal that is taken OUT of Copper to increase its purity, is the same metal some of us spend an arm, leg, and a foot to have IN our cables.
"Nawaz, you're full of sh_t!", you say? Well, you and my wife would get along famously.
However, I don't B.S. when it comes to science, and you can see/read for yourself here.
To be clear, I'm not saying 4N is better because it contains more Silver, just that "high purity" Copper claims are more about marketing than real world performance.
Now on to an often overlooked aspect of construction materials - Copper content.
Copper purity is often talked about, but Copper content is something else entirely. This may be a new one for a lot you, as it's rarely talked about. The reasons being that it's also measured as a percentage [as is purity, so it's easy to conflate/confuse the numbers], and it's best understood with a basic knowledge of metallurgy [not in the cards for most of us, but hey, there's always Wikipedia].
I'm still going to quickly talk about it though, because it's important, and you deserve to know.
While high purity/quality Copper is vital to overall performance, Copper content [the amount of Copper used] makes a dramatic difference in the transmission quality and efficiency of a plug. In plug manufacturing, Copper content runs from 30% to 98%, with the remainder made up of things like Nickel, Zinc, etc. Most of the industry is in the 60-65% range, which means those plugs are technically Brass, not Copper.
The Copper content of my primary production plugs is 97-98%, and are they all Gold-Plated with the exception of my 20 Amp IEC plugs, which are just bare Copper (no plating, but the Copper content is still 97%). I also have a few specialty plugs I use/supply by request, or out of necessity based on the project(s). Each material/process has unique characteristics, which I'm happy to discuss in detail if you want to get in touch.
In closing, I encourage you to further explore this topic, but bear in mind there are very few rules regarding material terminology in advertising, IE. "Pure Copper" doesn't mean it's actually pure Copper, so please be vigilant.
$1500 M.S.R.P. Cable Deconstruction
(click on an area to zoom in)
I want to be clear about this cable, the manufacturer of said cable, and the purpose of this exercise.
This was not done to disparage the cable or the manufacturer, or to show their efforts as being sub-par.
The manufacturer of this cable does some really good work, which you can get a glimpse of here, and there is no question in my mind that there is sound science and great care put in to their research and development.
They have a well-earned solid reputation in this industry, and I am not disputing that.
However, by their own admission, construction materials and techniques matter a great deal. While this particular cable is not poorly made (I have seen much worse), when shown beside the construction of 'The .1' CS, it does help illustrate the point that you can get a great deal more for your money than you may have thought possible.
That was the sole purpose behind this exercise, and I hope it served its purpose.
By the way, I cleaned and polished those plugs before I took everything apart, which is to say that brass plugs don't typically look that good. This cable belonged to a local client, who brought it to me to re-terminate the IEC (20 Amp to 15 Amp swap). However, once he saw what was "under the hood", he told me to toss it in the trash and proceeded to purchase another 'The .1'. You can read some of his comments here.
Before I move on, here is another $1000+ cable that leaves me scratching my head; do manufacturers really think this is all they should give you for the kind of money they are asking for?
'The .1' CS Construction
Step-by step construction photos coming soon*
*I'm applying for patents for some of my construction techniques and materials, so I need to keep a few things "close to the vest" for now